Wildflowers of Toronto's High Park​​

Goldenrods

Family: Composite/Aster
​Genus: Solidago
​Native to Ontario
​Perennial   


Goldenrod, Canada
S. canadensis 
Blooms August to October 
Habitat: Meadows, savannahs and roadsides.

​Height: Up to 1.5 m
Stem: Hairy in upper half; usually hairless below.

Leaves:  Narrowly ovate-lanceolate, stalkless, usually with toothed margins fringed with tiny hairs. No basal leaves.

​Flower cluster: branched, pyramid-shaped, containing many tiny flowers in simple racemes on upper side only.

Flower head: Up to 3 mm consisting of 6-12 rays and 2-7 disk florets. 
Goldenrod, early
​S. juncea  
Blooms: July to October 
Habitat: Dry open areas 

​Height: Up to 105 cm
​Stem: Hairless below flower head branches. Tufts of tiny leave in leaf axils.

Leaves: Basal rosette and on lower stem oblanceolate, tapering to a winged stalk; Margins slightly toothed and hairy.
​On upper stem smaller, linear-lanceolate, stalkless; margins entire.

​Flower cluster: Panicle, often as broad as long. Branches simple racemes, drooping or erect. Flowers only on upper side.

​Flower head: Up to 4.5 mm consisting of 7-12 rays and 8-15 disk florets.
Goldenrod, grey-stemmed 
​S. nemoralis
Blooms: August to October 
Habitat: Dry open meadows sandy soils

​Height: Up to 1 m
​Stem and leaves: grayish and hairy

​Flower cluster: Elongate pyramidal panicle. Tends to curve to one side at the top like a wand.

Flower head: Up to 6 mm consisting of 5-11 conspicuous rays and 3-10 disk florets. 
Goldenrod, zigzag
​S.flexicaulis
Blooms: August to September
Habitat: Deciduous woods.

​Height: Up to 75 cm
​Stem: Hairless below flower head branches. Bent at nodes. 

​Leaves: Ovate, sharp-tipped and toothed, narrowing to a winged stalk. 

​Flower clusters: stubby racemes in leaf axils.

​Flower head: Up to 6 mm consisting of 3-4 conspicuous rays and 5-9 disk florets.
Silverrod
​S.bicolor

Blooms:  August to September
Habitat: Dry soil. (Seen in High Park Nature's OurSpace.) 

​Height: Up to 75 cm
Stem: hairy, grayish 

​Leaves: Lower, toothed; upper often entire. 

​Flower clusters: Elongated spike. 

​Flower head: White or cream rays and disk florets  
Upland white aster
​S.ptarmicoides

(Despite its common name and aster-like appearance, this plant has recently been reclassified as a goldernrod.)

Blooms:  July to September
Habitat: Sandy soil.

​Height: Up to 40 cm
Stem: Hairless below with stiff course hairs above.

​Leaves: Lower including basal rosette, linear to linear-lanceolate.  Upper, same shape but smaller.  

​Flower clusters: Flat-topped corymb with only one or two heads per branch. 

​Flower head: Up to 15 cm with 10-20 white rays and 30-36 yellow disk florets.